The Carp Family (Cyprinidae).
Gold, or Chinese, crucian carp (Carassius auratus) found in the wild in Korea, China and Japan. This crucian carp in nature has a Golden hue, especially in shallow, well warmed by the sun waters.
Of all aquarium fish, goldfish have the longest history . Goldfish, a domesticated form of the Golden carp was first bred in China over 1500 years ago, where these, taking advantage of the variability of carp in coloration and in the shape of the body, engaged in the culture of ornamental carp. Goldfish bred in garden ponds and reservoirs in the estates of the nobility and wealthy people. It was the first time goldfish imported in the mid-eighteenth century. Currently widespread many varieties of goldfish.
Main color of body and fins reddish-Golden, the back is darker than the abdomen . Other types of coloring: pale pink, red, white, black, black-blue, yellow, dark bronze, fiery red. The body of a gold fish is elongated, slightly compressed laterally. In ponds goldfish can grow up to 35 cm, but in a normal aquarium its size is much smaller. To distinguish males from females only during the spawning season. Then the female has a rounded abdomen, while the males have pectoral fins and the gills there are a white “rash”.
For keeping goldfish it is better to have a tank capacity of at least 50 litres per individual . With the increase in the volume of the tank density should increase slightly, but much should not get carried away, with these fish is very easy to cross the line. In particular, in a volume of 100 l you can put two goldfish (or three, but in this case you will need to make a strong filtration and increase water changes). 150 l can be planted 3-4 individuals, in 200 l – 5-6, 250 l – 6 to 8, etc. Say that we are talking about grown fish size 5-7 cm, excluding the length of the caudal fin..
Goldfish like to dig in the soil. As the soil is better to use coarse sand or pebbles, which are not so easily scattered fish. The aquarium itself must be spacious and species, with large plants. However, tender plants quickly deteriorate goldfish or the surface of their leaves in water contaminated with suspended particles of trash. Therefore, in an aquarium with goldfish it is recommended to plant plants with stiff leaves and a good root system, such as Vallisneria, potbelly, Sagittaria, or the most enduring, such as Elodea.
In the common aquarium goldfish can be kept together with other calm fishes . Try to make the aquarium natural lighting and filtration. For all varieties of goldfish require good aeration. Gorodomlya goldfish (veiltail, telescope) require a larger volume of water than the long-bodied (the common goldfish, comet, shubunkin), for the same length of the body.
The characteristics of water, gold fish are undemanding . for example, the temperature can vary from 18 to 30 °C. Optimum should be considered in the spring and summer of 18 – 23 °C, winter – 15 – 18 °C. water Hardness 8 – 25°, pH 6-8. If you feel unwell fish in the water you can add salt 5-7 g/l. Fish tolerate a salinity of 12-15%. It is advisable to regularly replace part of the water volume.
Goldfish are omnivorous and in relation to food unpretentious . They eat quite a lot and willingly. Their diet should include fresh, vegetarian food. Goldfish require less protein than tropical aquarium fish and more carbohydrates. So many companies produce for goldfish and their exotic varieties of special diet in the form of flakes and granules. When using them, can achieve good results, because in addition to the essential nutrients with a great deal of carbohydrates, these foods are balanced and contain natural additives that improve the yellow, orange and red colors. It must be remembered, that when feeding dry food of any sort should be given in small portions several times a day, as in contact in a moist environment in the esophagus of the fish, he, swelled, greatly increased in size and can cause constipation and disruption of the normal functioning of the digestive organs of fish, which may result in the death of fish. You can first hold dry food for some time (10 seconds – flakes, 20-30 seconds – granules) in the water and only then to give them fish.
Although goldfish and hungry, give them plenty of feed should not be . The daily amount of food given should not exceed 3% of the weight of the fish. Feed adult fish twice a day – early morning and evening. Food gives as much as they can eat in ten to twenty minutes, and the remnants of uneaten food should be removed. Remember that underfeeding is better to fish than to overfeed them. Adult fish are receiving proper nutrition, no harm can carry a week’s hunger strike.
The long-bodied goldfish are durable . under good conditions can live for up to 30 – 35 years, Korotkaya – up to 15 years.
All varieties of goldfish can spawn in an aquarium with a capacity of 20 – 30 liters. The soil is sandy, small-leaved plants. To spawn put one female and two or three males over the age of 2 years. Before that they are kept separately for 2-3 weeks. Recommended temperature: 24 – 26 °C For spawning, you should put the female and two-three males. To stimulate spawning, water should be gradually heated so that its temperature was 5-10 °C higher than the original. Males, who are forced to run at high speed, start to chase the females, and the caviar is scattered throughout the aquarium, mostly on plants. The female lays up to 10,000 eggs. After spawning the fishes are removed. Starting food for fry: “living dust”. Currently on sale are the special food for the fry goldfish, for example, Sera Mikron.